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"0:, 01 M<V3@0FKV 15;0@CA:VE AO;O= 70 0:VO= A254GKFL  0<OB=0O :=830 @>4=5=A:>9 3C15@=88 =0 1905 3>4 (@>4=>, 1905). ;5 ?@0:BKG=0 ?5@HKO 420 475AOFV3>447V 1O3CG030 AB03>447O V=D0@<0FKO, A254G0=L=V, 0@BK:C;K 7 6KFLFO 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV 4@C:020;VAO ?5@0206=0 =0 AB0@>=:0E 307MB =0FKO=0;L=0  04@046M=A:030 =0:V@C=:C ^ V;L=V 9 V525. # 3MBK G0A ?0O2V;VAO 9 ?5@HKO ?C1;V:0FKV 40:C<5=B0^ ?0 40475=09 BM<5. <dd>0GK=0;L=V:0< AVABM<0BKG=030 0AM=A020=L=O 3VAB>@KV =0FKO=0;L=09 M<V3@0FKV, 71V@0;L=V:0< 1030B030 D0:BKG=030 <0BM@KO;C ?@0 O5 AB0;0 15;0@CA:0O 307MB0  0H0 =V20 (V;L=O, 1906 1915), O:0O 04?0G0B:C 0@K5=B020;0AO 9 =0 ?5@0AO;5=F0^ . # 4@C3V< =C<0@K 307MBK 047=0G0;0AO, HB> O5 <0BM@KO;K<br> <tt>7@07C<55 =O B>;L:V <C6K:, HB> AO478FL =0 @0;8, 7@07C<55 V D01@KG=K @01>B=8:, HB> ?0:8=C^ @>4=CN 2QA:C, :01 C GC6>9 AB0@>=FK HC:0FL 70@01>B:0^ 8 E;510 .</tt> <dd>07MB0 4020;0 ?0@04K ?0BM=FKO;L=K< M<V3@0=B0<, ?02540<;O;0 ?@0 =091>;LH 7=0G=KO ?0475V, FO6:0ALFV ^ 6KFLFV 70<56=KE ?5@0AO;5=F0^. 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(B>BK4=Q20O 307MB0  5;>@CAA:>5 ME> , O:0O 2KE>47V;0 ^ V525 =0 ?@0FO3C 1918 3., V=D0@<020;0 GKB0G>^ 01 :C;LBC@=0-0A25B=09 V 3@0<047:0-?0;VBKG=09 ?@0FK 15;0@CA:VE AC?>;0: =0 #:@0V=5 9 0A5V, <5;0 @C1@K:C  5;0@CA:VO 0@30=V70FKV =0 #:@0V=5 . <dd>L<OAB>^=09 :@K=VF09, O:0O 405 725AB:V 01 C<>20E ?5@0574C, ?@0F0^;04:020=L=O 9 ?@0FK 70 <O6>9, 7LO^;ONFF0 ?0@04K /. :0;>2VG0, ?04@KEB020=KO V< =0 15;0@CA:09 <>25 4;O 2V;5=A:030 DV;V0;0 "020@KAB20 40?0<>3V M<V3@0=B0< (0@H020) . 4=> 7L ?5@HKE 40:C<5=B0;L=KE A254G0=L=O^ 70@046M=L=O 0@30=V70FK9 15;0@CA0^ 70 <O6>9  =04@C:020=K ^ ( AB0BCB 70A=020=030 C 1912 3. (V 70@M3VAB@020=030 ^ 1914 3.) 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O47Q;:0-@K1 V V=H.) 1K;V 012V=020G0=K 20 ^475;5 ^  7;0GK==K< B020@KAB25 ^ 0B30;VV , O:>5 1KFF0< AB02V;0 <MB09 40;CGM=L=5 40 !!  =5:0B>@KE ?025B0^ 0B2VV, 475 740^=0 6K;V 15;0@CAK. 0B30;LA:V 0:@C3>2K AC4 =5 7=09H>^ =VO:VE 0=BK47O@60^=KE 475O=L=O^, ?@K7=0^ 012V=020G20=L=V 15;0@CA0^ 15A?04AB0^=K<V 9 0?@0^40^ VE (G0<C A?@KO;V 9 ?@0BMABK 15;0@CA:VE 0@030=V70FK9 @03V, >^=0 9 M@;V=0), 0;5 3MB0 2K:;V:0;0 70BCE0=L=5 15;0@CA:09 4759=0ALFV =0 ?M^=K G0A. <dd># ?@06A:V< 71>@=V:C  0<56=0O 5;0@CAL , 2K?CHG0=K< ?04 @M40:FKO9 . @MGM^A:030 C 1926 3. 2K4025FB20< V<O $.!:0@K=K, 7<5HG0=K 40:C<M=BK 9 <0BM@KO;K 7 3VAB>@KV M<V3@0FKV, 7=0GM=L=5 O:>9 2K40^F0<V 2K7=0G05FF0 BK<, HB> O=0  70^64K 1K;0 @ME0< =0@>40 9 ?@0204=V:>< O3> 4C<0: V V<:=5=L=O^ C HK@>:V A25B 03C;L=0G0;025G030 54=0=L=O (A. 11, 8). # 71>@=V:C 2K:;0475=K ?>3;O4K =570;56=VF:09 ?;K=V 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV =0 3VAB>@KN, A0FKO;L=0-M:0=0<VG=05 9 ?0;VBKG=05 AB0=>2VHG0 5;0@CAV, ?0:070=K ?@0FMA @07<56020=L=O 15;0@CA:VE 3@0<047:VE AV; =0 0FL:0^HGK=5 9 M<V3@0FKV ^ AO@M47V=5 1920-E 33. <dd>0HB>^=CN V=D0@<0FKN ?@0 @>7=KO 0A?5:BK 6KFLFO 9 4759=0ALFV 70<56=KE 15;0@CA0^ C 20 30-O 33. 7<OHG0;V 3@0<047:0-?0;VBKG=KO, =02C:>20-3VAB0@KG=KO 9 V=HKO ?5@KO4KG=KO 2K40=L=V M<V3@0FKV ^ @>7=KE :@0V=0E. 0 2KA=>20E 40AL;54=V:0 . 5@0AV<020 D0:BKG=0 ?5@HK< G0A>?VA0< 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K ^ A25F5 AB0;0 2K40=L=5 =0 15;0@CA:09 <>25 0 GC6K=5 ( K30, 1920). >30BK D0:BKG=K <0BM@KO; ?@0 =01KB:V, A:;040=0ALFV, ?@01;5<K 15;0@CA:09 70<56=09 AC?>;L=0ALFV 7<OALFV;V G0A>?VAK 5;0@CA:V ALFO3 (>^=0, 1922), @K2VG (>^=0, 1923 1927), >:;VGL (>^=0, 1926), 5;0@CA:V ABC4M=B (@030, 1923), 5@02OA;0 (@030, 1923), A:@K !:0@K=K (@030, 1923), 307MBK  >;0A 15;0@CA0 ( K30, 1924),  5;>@CAA:0O B@81C=0 ('K:030, 1926 1932, ?5@H0O 15;0@CA:0O 307MB0 =0 0<M@K:0=A:V< :0=BK=M=F5), <5@8:0=A:89 15;>@CA (??), ME0 (0@K6, 1938 1940), 1N;5BM=L %0^@CAC 5;0@CA:VE 01>B=V:0^ C $@0=FKV (0@K6, 1937). <dd># B>9 FV V=H09 <5@K ?04020;V 725AB:V ?@0 15;0@CA0^ 70 <O6>9 ?5@KO4KG=KO 2K40=L=V 0E>4=O9 5;0@CAV ^ A:;0475 >;LHGK: 2V;5=A:VO 307MBK 5;0@CA:VO 2540<0ALFV (1921-1922), >;0A 15;0@CA0 (1924), >;L=K ALFO3 (1923), 5;0@CA:V 72>= (1921 1923). "@K1C=09 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV AB0;0 @K=VF0 (C V;L=V 7 1919), O:0O 2O;0 @C1@K:V 5;0@CAK =0 M<V3@0FKV, 5;0@CAK C 0B2VV . # 30-O 33. ?@0 :C;LBC@=0-3@0<047:CN 4759=0ALFL 15;0@CA0^ C (, 0=0475 4K V=HKE :@0V=0E V=D0@<020;V 2V;5=A:VO 307MB0 5;0@CA:V D@>=B (1936 1939) V G0A>?VA 5;0@CA:V ;5B0?VA (1933 1939). # 0?>H=V< 20@B0 047=0GKFL 0=0;VBKG=CN 3@C=B>^=CN ?C1;V:0FKN 01 A0FKO;L=0-M:0=0<VG=K< AB0=>2VHGK 15;0@CA:VE M<V3@0=B0^, VE 3@0<047:0-:C;LBC@=K< 6KFLFV ^ $@0=FKV 15;0@CA0 .040@>6=030 (<03GK<0, HB> 3MB0 ?A5^40=V<) . <dd># !025F:09 5;0@CAV, :0;V ^ ?5@KO4 =0FKO=0;L=0-:C;LBC@=030 04@046M=L=O 1920-E 33. A:;0;VAO ^<>2K 4;O =02C:>2030 0AM=A020=L=O 3VAB>@KV =0@>40, 4@C: @MA?C1;V:V <br> <tt>1>;LH-<5=LH @M3C;O@=0 7<OHG0^ V=D0@<0FKN, 7L O:>9 40?KB;V2K GKB0G <>3 A:;0ALFV A015 ?@K1;V60=05 40 ?@0^4K ^O^;5==5 (& ?@0 M<V3@0FKN  0^B0@). @K=0<AV, B04K OHGM ^@04 !!  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"C@C: , 2O4><0 7 C;V:0< <03GK<0ALF59 ?@K B030G0A=09 A025F:09 AVABM<5 9 V4M0;>3VV. # ?@04<>25 40 3MB09 C7=>^;5=09 C V=A:C ?@0FK <0A:>^A:V 2CG>=K .0^:0 25;L<V B@0?=0 2K7=0GK^ 30;>^=CN V4MN 0^B0@0: <br> <tt>V<:=5==5 7@07C<5FL V ?0:070FL 01'5:BK^=CN, E>FL ?0@040:A0;L=CN ^705<070;56=0ALFL V ^705<001CA;>^;5=0AFL 015472NE 3@0<04A:VE ?;K=59 (15;0@CA:030 =0FKO=0;L=030 @CEC  . !.)  =0FKO=0;L=0-4M<0:@0BKG=09 V :;0A020-@M20;NFK9=09, VE=NN =0:V@020=0AFL 40 ?@K=FK?>20 04=05 V B05 A0<05 3VAB0@KG=09 7040GK: 2K10^;5==O 15;0@CA:030 =0@>40 7-?04 25:02>30 :0;0=VO;L=030 3=QBC, A201>4=030 30A?040@0==O 20 C;0A=K< 7O@60^=K< ><5 (A.2).</tt> <dd># AO@M47V=5 20-E 33. . >^=0@-0?>;LA:V ?04@KEB020^ 40 4@C:C VAB>@KN 5;0@CAV, C O:>9 047=0G0=0 V=BM=AV^=0ALFL ?5@0AO;5=G030 @CEC 7L 5;0@CAV ^ 1896 1915 33., ?04:@MAL;5=K 2O;V:V C@>= 4;O 30A?040@:V 5;0@CAV 04 3MB030, 7@>1;5=K V=HKO 2KA=>2K. &M=70@K 04 C;04K ?0;VGK;V 3MBCN :=V3C V4M0;03VG=0 H:>4=09, 0 0^B0@ 7<CH0=K 1K^ ?0:V=CFL 5;0@CAL . <dd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dd>=0;V7 M<V3@0FKV 7 0E>4=O9 5;0@CAV =0 ?0G0B:C 1930-E 304>^ =0 0<5@K:0=A:V :0=BK=5=B V ^ M^@0?59A:VO :@0V=K, O5 ?@KGK=K, A0FKO;L=K A:;04 7@>1;5=K ^ V=D0@<0FK9=K< 1N;5BM=V 5;0@CA:09 0:04M<VV =02C: . !B0BKABKG=KO 4K V=HKO <0BM@KO;K ?@0 M<V3@0FKN AO;O= 70 0:VO= V 04KE>4=VFB20 =0 70@>1:V 9 ?0AO;5=L=5 ^ !V1V@ =0 @C1O6K %% %% AB. 7<5HG0=K ^ 71>@=V:C 0:C<5=BK V <0BM@KO;K ?0 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV (B. 2. =, 1940. !. 613, 699 4K V=H). "0:V< GK=0<, C 1920-1930-O 33. ?KB0=L=V M<V3@0FKV, 15;0@CA:030 =0FKO=0;L=030 @CEC @073;O40;VAO 15;0@CA:V<V 40AL;54=V:0<V, ?5@0206=0, 70 <560<V 5;0@CAV. # ?5@KO4 15;0@CAV70FKV ^ !!  BM<0 ?5@0AO;5=L=O^ 70 <O6C 4K ^ V=H0MB=VG=KO @0Q=K !!!  C?VA20;0AO (E>FL V D@03<5=B0@=0) C 3VAB>@KN =0@>40. ;5 ^6> 7 :0=F0 1920-E 33. ?0 V4M0;03VG=KE ?@KGK=0E O=0 ?@0:BKG=0 7=V:05 7 =02C:>2030 0AM=A020=L=O 9 GKB0F:030 ^6KB:C. <p><center><b>AL2OB;5=L=5 4759=0ALFV 15;0@CA:030 70<5660<br> ^ 304K @C3>9 ACA25B=09 209=K.</b></center> <p><dd>A=>^=09 :@K=VF09 725AB0: ?@0 15;0@CA0^ 70 <O6>9 C 3MBK G0A 1K;V 30;>^=K< GK=0< ?5@KO4KG=KO 2K40=L=V. # 0?C1;V:020=09 ?04 G0A @C3>9 !CAL25B=>9 209=K :=V75 /. 0947N:0 5;0@CAL CG>@0 V AO=L=O (5=A:, 1944) ?0:070=K 0A=>^=KO FM=B@K 15;0@CA:09 =0FKO=0;L=09 M<V3@0FKV ^ M^@>?5, =0 0<5@K:0=A:V< :0=BK=5=F5 (A. 232 250). A>1=KO 0@BK:C;K ?@0 15;0@CA:CN M<V3@0FKN ?0O2V;VAO ^ ?@MA5, O:0O 2KE>47V;0 =0 0:C?020=09 BM@KB>@KV, ?04 :0=B@>;5< 35@<0=A:VE C;04. "0:, 2V;5=A:0O HB>BK4=Q20O 307MB0 <i>Bielaruski Holas</i>, (1942 1944 33., @M40:B0@ $. ;OE=>2VG), <5;0 @C1@K:V  5;0@CA:05 6KFLFQ ^ 0B2VV ,  5;0@CAK =0 GC6K=5 . # M@;V=5 2K4020;VAO 307MBK =0 15;0@CA:09 <>25 0=VF0 (1939 1945) V 5;0@CA:V @01>B=V: (1943 1944). O4><0, <0BM@KO;K 3MBKE 307MB =OACFL 041VB0: :0=:@MB=KE 205==KE 01AB02V=, A?@>HG0=0ALFV, G0A0<V 04=010:>20ALFV ^ ?0:075 3MB030 A:;040=030 G0AC, 6KFLFO M<V3@0FKV. "K< 7L <5=H, 0=VF0 A?@01020;0 2K7=0GKFL ?07KFKV ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV ^ =>2KE C<>20E, ?04:@MA;V20;0, HB><br> <tt>H<0B 15;0@CA0^ B@0?VFL C =>2KO 47O@602K V =>2KO C<>2K 6KFFO. "@M10 70@07 CA2540<VFL ACG0A=K AB0= M<V3@0FKV ^ A25F5, O5 ;V:, A:;04 V E0@0:B0@ C ?00A>1=KE :@0V=0E, =0FKO=0;L=CN A2O4><0AFL V 0@30=V7020=0AFL, O5 =540E>?K V ?0B@M1K, 0 B0<C  15;0@CA:0O ?0;VBKG=0O M<V3@0FKO ^ 3MB09 2O;V:09 20=4@>^FK =0@>40^, O:0O ?0G0;0AO 7 ?@KGK=K 209=K, =5 ?02V==0 1KFL B>;L:V 1O72>;L=09 B@MA:09 =0 E20;OE, 0 <CAVFL AL2540<0 ?@01V20FF0 BC4K, 475 O=0 =091>;LH ?0B@M1=0 V =501E>4=0O 7 15;0@CA:030 =0FKO=0;L=030 3;547VHG0 .</tt> <dd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dd>5;>@CAA:89 8;;NAB@8@>20==K9 :0;5=40@L, O:V ^ 1940 1944 33. 2K4020;0 ^ @35=BK=5 $M4M@0FKO 5;0@CA:VE "020@KAB20^ V @30=V70FKO^, 7<OALFV^ H<0B <0BM@KO;0^ 01 0:BK2V70FKV =0 E20;V 0=BKD0HKAF:030 ^74K<:C 4759=0ALFV 15;0@CA:VE AC?>;0:, 0:FKOE 40?0<>3V 47O@6020< 0=BK3VB;5@0^A:09 :00;VFKV, C BK< ;V:C !!!  . %>FL B@M10 047=0GKFL, HB> =0FKO=0;L=K 15;0@CA:V 7<5AB 3MBKE B020@KAB20^ 1K^ 25;L<V 72C60=K 9 ?5@02060^ ?@0A025F:V (?@0@0AV9A:V) E0@0:B0@ 4759=0ALFV. <p><center><b>VAB>@KO 4KOA?0@K ^ 40AL;54020=L=OE<br> 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV (1945 1990)</b></center> <p><dd>0475V 7 6KFLFO 15;0@CA:09 70E>4=O9 4KOA?0@K, @07=0AB09=0O V=D0@<0FKO ?@0 30;>^=KO 3@0<047:0-?0;VBKG=KO 0:FKV, 04=>AV=K AB0@09 V =>209 M<V3@0FKV 04:;0;VAO =0 AB0@>=:0E M<V3@0=F:030 4@C:C, =09?5@H B0:VE 307MB O:  0FL:0^HGK=0 (N=EM=, 1947 1966) V 5;0@CA (LN @:, 1950 ), O:VO @07KE>47V;VAO ?0 15;0@CA:VE 0AO@>4:0E @>7=KE :@0V=. MBKO 307MBK AB0;V 2K@07=V:0<V ?0;VBKG=KE V4M0;0^ 1>;LH09 G0AB:V M<V3@0FKV, ?0B@M1 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K. &V:020ALFL 4;O 40AL;54=V:0^ CO^;ONFL 03;O4K 15;0@CA:030 6KFLFO ^ A25F5 ?0A;O205==K<V 307MB0<V 5;0@CA:VO =02V=K (0@K6, 1945 1947), 5;0@CA:0O B@K1C=0 (LN @: !0^B K2M@, 1950 1953,), 5;0@CA:05 A;>20 (0E>4=OO O<5GGK=0, ( 1948 1956,), G0A>?VA0<V 5;>@CAA:89 8;;NAB@8@>20==K9 :0;5=40@L (@35=BK=0, 1947 1948), 5B0?VA 15;0@CA:05 M<V3@0FKV (0E>4=OO O<5GGK=0, 1947 1955, (, 1955 ), 5;0@CA C <M@KFK (!0^B K2M@, 1948 1949), 540 (LN @:, 1951 1954). 02C:>205 2K40=L=5 0?VAK, O:>5 2KE>47VFL 7 1952 3. C LN @:C, @M3C;O@=0 7L<OHG05 0@BK:C;K ?@0 M<V3@0FKN, CA?0<V=K, E@>=V:C =02C:>20-:C;LBC@=030 6KFLFO =0 M<V3@0FKV. @0<047:05, F0@:>^=0-@M;V3V9=05 6KFLFQ 04;NAB@020;V G0A>?VAK >6K< H;OE0< (0@K6, Q=40=, 1947 1980), Znic ( K<, 1950 1975), >;0A F0@:2K (LN @:, 1955 ) 4K V=H.. <dd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dd>504=07=0G=0O 0FM=:0 3VAB>@KV 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV 40 AO@M47V=K 1950-E 33. 2K:070=0 0<5@K:0=A:V< 40AL;54=V:0< 15;0@CA:030 ?0E>460=L=O . 0:0@0< C HK@>:V< :0=BM:ALF5 0AM=A020=L=O V< ?@01;5<K A:;0420=L=O 15;0@CA:09 =0FKV . = 1>;LH @M0;L=0, GK< V=HKO 40AL;54=V:V B03> G0AC, ?0:070^ =01KB:V, ?@01;5<K 9 A;010ALFL 15;0@CA:09 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV (E>FL G0A0< C 0FM=:0E O<C H:>47V;0 O3>=0O ?@0@0A59A:0O 0@K5=B0FKO) . . 0:0@ ?04:@MAL;V^ =0472KG09 A:;040=05 9 =5A?@KO;L=05 <V6=0@>4=05 AB0=>2VHG0, C O:V< 402>47V;0AO 4759=VG0FL 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV ^ 1-9 ?0;. 20-E 33., AC?O@MG=0ALFV ?0<V6 O5 @>7=K<V ?;K=O<V, =O74>;L=0ALFL AB20@KFL C?;K2>2CN ?04B@K<:C A20V< 0:FKO< 7 1>:C <V6=0@>4=05 AC?>;L=0ALFV, 0B@K<0FL 4759A=CN ?><0G C :@0V=0E 7=0E>460=L=O 4K V=H. @K 3MBK< 0^B0@ @>1VFL 03C;L=CN 0FM=:C, HB>  ^:;04 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV ^ 15;0@CA:CN A?@02C ^2>3C;5 7L 1K^ AB@0G0=K (A. 135). =0;V7CNGK 4759=0ALFL C 304K @C3>9 ACA25B=09 209=K 9 ?0A;O O5, 0^B0@ ?0?@0:05 15;0@CA:VE ;V4M@0^ 70 =O2>?KB=0ALFL C <V6=0@>4=KE A?@020E, A;01CN 0:@MA;5=0ALFL ?0;VBKG=09 :0=FM?FKV 15;0@CA:09 47O60^=0ALFV, V4M0;V70FKN =0FKO=0;L=030 AB0=C 9 04=>AV= 40 =0FKO=0;L=09 V4MV =0A5;L=VFB20 =0 0FL:0^HGK=5. = :@KBKG=0 AB02V^AO 40 V4M9=0-BM0@MBKG=KE ?07VFK9 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV, 04ACB=0ALFV :0=AB@C:BK^=09 ?@03@0<K 475O=L=O^ ?0A;O :@0EC A025F:09 B0B0;VB0@=09 AVABM<K. >3;O4 . 0:0@0 O: =0 ^B20@M=L=5 15;0@CA:09 =0FKV, B0: V 475O=L=V =0FKO=0;L=09 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV 0B@K<0^ =5?@KEV;L=K, =020B =530BK^=K 2>43C: C =0FKO=0;L=0 0@K5=B020=KE 15;0@CA:VE 0AO@>4:0E, 0 B0:A0<0 ^ 4@C:C. <dd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br> <tt>:>;L:0AFL 15;0@CA0^ C !!  7<5=LHK;0AO, =504?0254=KO A0?@0^4=K< 7-70 @CAVDV:0FKV V ;VG1K 15;0@CA0^ 70 <560<V !!  . 40@20=KO 04 A2093> :@0N 9 MB=VG=0-=0FKO=0;L=030 0AO@>47L47O, :V=CBKO =0 ?@0AB>@K GC6>5 7O<;V, (& ) AO@>4 GC6KE ?0 <>25, 72KG0OE V ?AKEVFK ;N4759,  ?04:@MA;V205 Q=, 15;0@CA:VO ?5@0AO;5=FK ACG0A=K<V :0<C=VABKG=K<V 20;040@0<V 0A59A:05 V<?M@KV 0AC460=KO =0 ECB:CN 4M=0FKO=0;V70FKN, @CAKDV:0FKN, =0 =0FKO=0;L=CN AL<5@FL .</tt> <dd>3C;L=0O 7@>1;5=0O 0^B0@0< 2KA=>20: <dd><tt>;O 5;0@CA:05 6 !!  ?;O=0205, AKABM<0BKG=05 2K;N4=5=L=5 =OA5 A?04 O5 4M<03@0DVG=030, 30A?040@G030 9 =0FKO=0;L=030 ?0BM=FKO;C .</tt> <dd>>2K< :@>:0< C 0A2OB;5=L=V 3VAB>@KV 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV AB0^ O5 :0@>B:V =0@KA, =0?VA0=K ^ 70-O 33. . 0;C1>2VG0< . # V< ?@0A>G205FF0 ?@0FO3;K ?5@KO4  04 A0<KE @0=L=VE ?5@0AO;5=L=O^ 7L 15;0@CA:VE 7O<5;L V 40 @C3>9 !CAL25B=09 209=K, ?0:070=K VE ?@KGK=K 9 E0@0:B0@ =0 @>7=KE MB0?0E, 2K7=0G0=0 ?5@KO4K70FKO, 2K;CG0=K =091>;LH 7=0G=KO 0A>1K 7L ;V:C M<V3@0=B0^-15;0@CA0^. 4=K< 7L ?5@HKE =0?VA0^ ?@0 ^475; 15;0@CA0^ =0 70E>4=VE D@0=B0E @C3>9 ACA25B=09 209=K . !5=:52VG , C 0A=>^=K< C A:;0475 2-30 ?>;LA:030 :>@?CA0 (?04 :0<0=4020=L=5< 35=5@0;0 #.=4M@A0), O:V ^20E>47V^ 8-CN 1@KB0=A:>9 0@<VV. ^B0@ 2K7=0GK^ ?@K:;04=K ;V: 703V=C^HKE (1>;LH 70 2 BKA. C@046M=F0^ 5;0@CAV, 0 7L VE 1>;LH 70 1700 15;0@CA0^). = A;CH=0 ?04:@MA;V^ B@0354KN 15;0@CA0^ C G0A @C3>9 ACA25B=09 209=K: O=K 1K;V  7<CH0=KO 7<030FLF0 =0 ^AVE D@0=B0E, ?04 @>7=K<V ALFO30<V V, 25;L<V G0AB0, AC?@0FL A20VE =0FKO=0;L=KE V=B0@MA0^ (A?@020^) . <dd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years of <i>Byelorussian-American Youth Organization</i> 1950 1970 (Cleveland, 1970). &0@:>^=0-@M;V3V9=05 6KFLFQ 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K ^ ( 0A2OB;O5FF0 ^ 2K40=L=V 0<OB=0O :=V30. 1950 1975 (!0^B K2M@, 1975) ?@0 15;0@CA:CN F0@:2C ^ 3MBK< <5AFK, ?C1;V:0FKOE . &O@?VF:030 VAB>@KO ?01C4>2K 5;0@CA:09 ?@020A;0^=09 F0@:2K (!0^B K2M@, 1984) V <i>St. George Byelorussian Orthodox Church. 25th Anniversary. 1958 1983</i> (Chicago, 1983). <dd>4=K< 7L ?5@HKE .C:-@KH:52VG ?0AB02V^ ?KB0=L=5 01 =504M:20B=0ALFV 70A254G0=L=O 15;0@CA0^ C AB0BKABKFK 0=04K, =501E>4=0ALFV ?@K ?5@0?VA0E 2K;CG0FL 15;0@CA0^ 7 @0A59A:09 V ?>;LA:09 AC?>;L=0ALFO^, 401V20^AO @M0;L=030 2K@0HM=L=O 3MB09 ?@01;5<K  C:;NGM=L=O ^ ?5@0?VA=KO 40:C<5=BK 0A>1=09 =072K-15;0@CAK . /3> =02C:>20O ?5@0?VA:0 7 2CG>=K< 6.M9M, 70^203V, ?0@04K ?@K =0?VA0=L=V V< <0=03@0DVV 0=04FK 15;0@CA:030 ?0E>460=L=O (??) , 0 70BK< ?04@KEB020=0O @MFM=7VO =0 3MBCN :=V3C ?0A?@KO;V 1>;LH 01'5:BK^=0<C 2K7=0GM=L=N :>;L:0ALFV 15;0@CA0^, ?0:07C VE :C;LBC@=0-0A25B=030 6KFLFO ^ 0=0475 . 04@KEB020=0O . C:-@KH:52VG0< ?C1;V:0FKO ?@0 15;0@CA0^ C 0=0475 C 1967 3. C?5@HK=N ^209H;0 ^ :=V3C  @M20 :0=047:09 AO<'V , 2K40475=CN 40 AB03>447O 0=04K.# 0=0;03VG=05 2K40=L=5 1979 3. <0BM@KO;K ?@0 :0=047:VE 15;0@CA0^ 1K;V ?@04AB0^;5=K . C:-@KH:52VG. 0ALAO;5=L=5, 4759=0ALFL 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K ^ 0=0475, O5 A0FKO;L=0-M:0=0<VG=K AB0BCA V AB0=>2VHG0 7<OAB>^=0 0AM=A020=K ^ ?@0FK /. !04>^A:030 . <dd># 50 80-O 33. 1030BCN V=D0@<0FKN ?@0 6KFLFQ 9 4759=0ALFL 15;0@CA0^ C >;LHGK, 0A01;V20 =0 MB=VG=0 15;0@CA:VE 75<;OE 5;0AB>GGK=K, 7<OHG0;0 307MB0 V20 (5;0AB>:, 1956 ). 072VFLFQ 15;0@CA:09 0A25BK =0 5;0AB>GGK=5 @073;5475^ .. "C@>=0: . 504=07=0G=CN @M0:FKN ^ ?>;LA:V< 3@0<04AB25 ^ A2>9 G0A 2K:;V:0;0 :=V30 01 AB0=>2VHGK 15;0@CA0^-0^B0EB>=0^ C >;LHGK 9 A:;040=KE VE 04=>AV=0E ?0 =5:0B>@KE ?@01;5<0E 7L 47O@60^=K<V ^AB0=>20<V . <dd>0HK@M=L=N 2540^ ?@0 70<56=KE 15;0@CA0^ A?@KONFL 0@BK:C;K 15;0@CA:VE =02C:>^F0^-M<V3@0=B0^ C 40254=V:0E, M=FK:;0?54KOE, 0 B0:A0<0 2K40=L=5 5;0@CA:0O 47O@60^=0AFL . <dd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dd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p><center><b>5;0@CA:0O 4KOA?0@0 ^ 3VAB0@KO3@0DVV !! <br> C 1945 1990 33.</b></center> <p><dd># 3MBKO 475AOFV3>447V ?@040^60;0AO A2O4><05 70<>^G20=L=5, A:06M=L=5, D0;LAVDV:0FKO O: 3VAB>@KV, B0: V ACG0A=0ALFV 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV, D0:BKG=0 04ACB=VG0;0 =02C:>205 0AM=A020=L=5 ;QAC A>F5= BKAOG (0 70BK< 1>;LH 2 <;=.) <V3@0=B0^ 7 !!  C V=H0MB=VG=KO @M3VQ=K !!! . @0 VE C2>3C;5 @072060;V B>;L:V ^ :0=BM:ALF5  71;V6M=L=O V 7;VFLFO =0FK9 , D0@<V@020=L=O =>209 3VAB0@KG=09 AC?>;L=0ALFV  A025F:V =0@>4 , C 6KFLFV O:>30 A0?@0^4=KO, 0 =5 1CB0D>@A:VO ?@0O2K =0FKO=0;L=030 =5 ?@04C3;5460;VAO 9 6>@AB:0 0AC460;VAO 0DVFK9=09 V4M0;>3VO9, ?0@BK9=0-A025F:V< :V@0^=VFB20<. <dd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dd># ?0A;O205==K5 475AOFV3>4475 04ACB=VG0;V ?C1;V:0FKV 9 ?0 3VAB>@KV ?@0F>^=09 M<V3@0FKV. A>1=KO D0:BK 2K574C A5;O=-15;0@CA0^ 70 0:VO= V ;VG1K 01 :>;L:0ALFV ?5@0AO;5=F0^ C !V1V@ 70 1909 1911 33. 7LO2V;VAO ^ 71>@=V:C  0:C<5=B0^ V <0BM@KO;0^ ?0 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV (". 3. V=A:, 1953). <dd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dd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dd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dd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dd>"@M10 =04:@MA;VFL, HB> 9 C 1970 80-O 33. C !!  =02C:>20 =5 0AM=A>^20;0AO @0=L=OO M<V3@0FKO 7L 15;0@CA:VE 7O<5;L, <0A020O ?@0F>^=0O <V3@0FKO =0 @C1O6K %% %% ABAB. C V=H0MB=VG=KO @M3VQ=K 0A5V 9 70 O5 <56K. K:;NGM=L=5< AB0;0 :=V30 . 5@0HG03V=0 . :@0<O 3MB030, 3VAB>@KO ?5@H09 E20;V <0A0209 ?@0F>^=09 <V3@0FKV 70:@0=0;0AO ^ ?@0F0E 1960 80-E 33. . V?V=A:030, . 0=NFVG0 ?@0 A0FKO;L=0-M:0=0<VG=05 @072VFLFQ 15;0@CA:09 2QA:V, D0@<V@020=L=5 ?@0;5B0@KOB0 ^ 5;0@CAV . @K 3MBK< 0^B0@K =5 0A2OB;O;V ?KB0=L=V 6KFLFO, 4759=0ALFV 4KOA?0@K, V=BM3@020=0ALFV 70<56=KE AC@>47VG0^ C 2KB2>@GK 9 :C;LBC@=K ?@0FMA :@0V= ?@06K20=L=O. # M=FK:;0?54KV  -B=03@0DVO 5;0@CAV (V=A:, 1989) V=D0@<0FK9=0 =0AKGK=K 0@BK:C;. . 0AL?O@>2VG ?@KA25G0=K <V3@0FKV =0A5;L=VFB20, ?@0^40 B>;L:V ^ <560E C;0A=0 MB=VG=09 BM@KB>@KV 4K ^ V=H0MB=VG=KO 0AO@>4:V !!! . @K 3MB0< 0^B0@ 01KH>^ ?@01;5<C ?@K<CA>2030 ?5@0AO;5=L=O, 4M?0@B0FK9, 0 B0:A0<0 70<56=CN <V3@0FKN. !?5FKO;L=0O 6 4MDV=VFKO  -<V3@0FKO ^ 2K40=L=V =003C; 04ACB=VG05. <dd>O3;547OGK =0 ?M^=CN V4M0;03VG=CN 7040475=0ALFL, BM=4M=FK9=0ALFL (?5@01>;LH20=L=5 FO6:0ALF59 6KFLFO ^ M<V3@0FKV, CE20;5=L=5 A025F:030 ;04C 6KFLFO, 70<>^G20=L=5 A0?@0^4=09 @M0;L=0ALFV, ?@0?030=40 HG0A;V2030 ^;04:020=L=O @MM<V3@0=B0^ C !!! ) 7=0G=K D0:BKG=K <0BM@KO; 01 ;QA5 ?5@0AO;5=F0^ 7L 5;0@CAV ^ @>7=KE :@0V=0E 7<OHG0NFL CA?0<V=K  ?@03@MAV^=KE @MM<V3@0=B0^ C !!  (?@0:0<C=VABKG=09, ?@0A025F:09 0@K5=B0FKV) . C=4K, . (0AB0:>^A:030, . (0@K=A:030, . 07CHGK:0, 0 B0:A0<0 71>@=V:V ;VAB>^ AC09GK=L=V:0^, VE C@060=L=O^ 04 ACAB@MG =0 10FL:0^HGK=5 . /: A@>40: ?@0?030=4K A025F:030 ;04C 6KFLFO AO@>4 M<V3@0=B0^ 7 1955 3. 2K:0@KAB>^20;0AO 307MB0  0 2O@B0==5 =0 047V<C . !0 ABC475=O 1960 3. O=0 AB0;0 >@30=0< 5;0@CA:030 B020@KAB20 ?0 AC2O7OE 7 AC09GK=L=V:0<V 70 @C1O6>< ?04 =07209  >;0A 047V<K . 07MB0 1K;0 ^ G0AK !!  047V=K< 4072>;5=K< V :0=B@0;N5<K< C;0409 :0=0;0< AC2O7V 3@0<047:0ALFV 7  ?@03@MAV^=K<V M<V3@0=B0<V. 0 A20VE AB0@>=:0E ?@0?030=4020;0  A0FKO;VABKG=KO V4M0;K, A025F:V ;04 6KFLFO,  :;O9<V;0 15;0@CA:AVE 1C@6C07=KE =0FKO=0;VAB0^ 70 <O6>9 70 B>5, HB> 7L 74@047V;V V4M0;0< =570;56=0ALFV 5;0@CAV, 7L 2K@0:;VAO @>4=09 <>2K 9 3VAB>@KV, B@04KFK9.  1980-E 304>^ ?02>;V ?0G0;VAO 7<5=K ^ 04;NAB@020=L=V M<V3@0=F:030 6KFLFO AC@>47VG0^ (157 ?0475;C VE =0  ?@03@MAV^=KE V  1C@6C07=KE =0FKO=0;VAB0^ ), A0?@0^4=09 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV. <dd>0?@K:0=FK 1980-E 304>^ ?@0O2V;VAO ?M^=KO ?@K:<5BK ?5@0<5= ^ 3@0<047:0-?0;VBKG=K< AB0=>2VHGK !! , ;V15@0;V70FKV B0B0;VB0@=09 AVABM<K, E>FL 1K;V O=K A;0159HKO, GK< C =5:0B>@KE V=HKE @MA?C1;V:0E-ACA547OE. 0 C7@>^=V 47O@60^=K< V 3@0<047:V< ?02>;V <O=O;VAO 04=>AV=K 40 70<56=KE AC@>47VG0^. .!0G0=:0 0?C1;V:020^ ?5@HKO AVABM<0BK7020=KO =0B0B:V, @07203V ?@0 15;0@CA:CN M<V3@0FKN C G0A>?VA5  0;04>AFL (1988. !10 11), O:VO 70BK< C209H;V ^ O3>=K 71>@=V:  !=OFF0 A=K 01 5;0@CAV&  (V=A:, 1990). @K25475=KO D0:BK 9 <5@:020=L=V 4020;V GKB0GC =>2CN V=D0@<0FKN, 0;5 0^B0@ 7L 7<>3 ?5@004>;5FL F0;:0< 72K:;KO ?>3;O4K, 01 GK< ?04:@MA;V^ C A20V< 2>43C:C /. 0?@C4=V: . -<0FKO=0;L=0O 9 D0:B0;03VG=0 1030B0O  !?>2547L . 5=VNH @0A:@K;0 O5 M<V3@0=F:V ;QA, 6KFLFQ ?@06A:09 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K ^ 304K @C3>9 ACA25B=09 209=K . !0:@MB=KO, @0=59 =540ABC?=KO <0BM@KO;K 01 04=>AV=0E C;040^ !!!  V !!  40 15;0@CA:09 =0FKO=0;L=09 M<V3@0FKV ?0O2V;VAO ^ 04=K< 7 =091>;LH 01'5:BK^=0 A:;0475=KE ?0 3MB09 BM<5 71>@=V:0^   45>;>38G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ><?0@B88 5;>@CAA88 (". 1: 1918 1928 33. 8=A:, 1990). ?C1;V:020=KO C V< 40:C<5=BK 9 <0BM@KO;K ?0:070;V <MBK, A?>A01K, <5B04K ?0@BK9=0-A025F:09 C;04K, 04?0254=KE >@30=0^, O:VO ?@04?@K<0;VAO, :01 ?04?0@04:020FL 15;0@CA:V 70<56=K @CE A025F:0<C C?;K2C, 0A;01VFL @>;N ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV H;OE0< O5 @0A:>;C, ?@KFO3=5=L=O 40 AC?@0F>^=VFB20 0A>1=KE 3@C? V ;V4M@0^, @07;06M=L=O 9 4@01;5=L=O, V70;OFKV ?0;VBKG=09 ?;K=V 04 :0@M==030 =0A5;L=VFB20, O:>5 =0 A20VE MB=VG=KE 75<;OE 0:070;0AO 70 <560<V !!! . <dd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p><center><b>!CG0A=K AB0= 2K2CGM=L=O 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K<br> 9 ?M@A?M:BK2K</b></center> <p><dd> 1990-E 33., :0;V 5;0@CAL 012OALFV;0 A20N =570;56=0ALFL, 0 ^ ?5@H09 VE ?0;>25 15;0@CA:05 =0FKO=0;L=05 04@046M=L=5 (E>FL V 7 ?M^=K<V FO6:0ALFO<V) =01V@0;0 <>F, ?0O2V;VAO ?C1;V:0FKV 15;0@CA:VE 40AL;54=V:0^ =0 10FL:0^HGK=5, C O:VE 7 =>2KE ?07VFK9, 7 C;V:0< 03C;L=0G0;025GKE V =0FKO=0;L=KE :0HB>^=0ALF59 0AM=A>^20;0AO 3VAB>@KO 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K. %0FO, =5:0B>@KO ?@0FK 3MB030 ?5@KO4C ^AQ 6 =OACFL =0 A015 047=0:C AB0@KE ?>3;O40^, 4>3<0^. 5 ?07102V;0AO 3MB030 9 2K40=L=5 (4@C3>5, 40?>^=5=05 9 ?0?@0^;5=05)  D0:B0^ V <5@:020=L=O^ . !0G0=:V  5;0@CA:0O M<V3@0FKO (V=A:, 1991) . #?5@HK=N ^ =570;56=09 5;0@CAV BM<0 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K ?0G0;0 C:;NG0FF0 C 3VAB0@KG=K :0=BM:AB @072VFLFO 15;0@CA:030 =0@>40 ^ B0:VE 0103C;L=ONGKE ?@0F0E O:  0@KAK 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV ('. 2. V=A:, 1995, 0^B0@ @07L475;0 . !O@35520), AC<5A=05 2K40=L=5 15;0@CA:VE V @0A59A:VE 2CG>=KE  5;0@CAK (@07L475; =0?VA0=K !. 0FN=V=K<), 0B;OA  5;0@CAK: -B=03@0DVO, 4KOA?0@0, :0=D5AVV (V=A:, 1996). <dd>A=>^=KO =0?@0F>^:V ?0 @>7=KE AN6MB0E 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K 7=09H;V 04;NAB@020=L=5 ^ 0A>1=KE @07475;0E 1>;LH HK@>:VE 4>A;540^ ?0 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV, =02C:>2KE, =02C:>20-?0?C;O@=KE 0@BK:C;0E, O:VO 40?0<030NFL GKB0GC ?07102VFF0 04=01>:VE, BM=4M=FK9=KE B@0:B>20: ?04759, D0:B0^, ;QA0^ M<V3@0=B0^, O:VO VA=020;V ?@K A025F:09 AVABM<5. "@M10 047=0GKFL HK@>:V 0E>? 0^B0@0<V @>7=KE 0A?5:B0^ 3VAB>@KV V ACG0A=0ALFV 15;0@CA:09 70<56=09 AC?>;L=0ALFV. <dd>3C;L=K 03;O4 4KOA?0@K O: 7=0G=09, 206=09 7LO2K ^ 3VAB>@KV 15;0@CA:030 =0@>40 7@>1;5=K . 0BKH>=:0<, . !O@355209, #. !=0?:>^A:V<, . 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(8=A:, 1995) V O3> 3@C=B>^=K< 40AL;54020=L=V  AB>@8O 5;0@CA8. !B0=>2;5=85 =0F8>=0;L=>9 45@602=>AB8 (8=A:, 1999) 4759=0ALFL ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV ^?VA205FF0 C 3VAB0@KG=K ?@0FMA @072VFLFO 5;0@CAV, 0   @073;O405FF0 O: 04=> A0 72Q=0^ 041C4>2K 15;0@CA:09 =570;56=0ALFV. = ?@00=0;V7020^ O:CN A0<00FM=:C ?@>9475=0<C H;OEC 40;0 ?5@H0O 0@30=V7020=0O 15;0@CA:0O ?0;VBKG=0O M<V3@0FKO (>;0F0:, 1993. !3). 5@HKO =0<030=L=V 15;0@CA:09 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV, O:VO =530BK^=0 B@0:B020;VAO 3VAB0@KO3@0DVO9 !! , 70O2VFL 01  15;0@CA:V< ?KB0=L=V =0 <V6=0@>4=09 0@M=5 04;NAB@020;V . &VE0<V@0^ V . 20=>^ . #475; 15;0@CA0^ C 10@0FL15 70 =570;56=0ALFL A2093> :@0N ?0A;O 012OHGM=L=O   ?0:070^ . 0BKH>=0: C A?5FKO;L=K< 40AL;54020=L=V ?@0 15;0@CA:VO 209A:02KO D0@<V@020=L=V 1917 1924 33. . <dd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dd>=0G=0ALFL 71>@=V:0   3VAB>@KO9 =0  K (K?.3. V=A:, 1994, C:;040;L=V: /. 0?@C4=V:) C BK<, HB> Q= 405 <03GK<0ALFL 04GCFL A:;040=0ALFL ?@>FVAB0O=L=O @>7=KE ?;K=O^ 15;0@CA:09 ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV :0=F0 1940-E  ?0G0B:C 1950-E 33., ?0<:=5=L=V, 6040=L=V, V4M0;K, 30;>^=KO 0:FKV 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K, C10GKFL O5 6KFLFQ O: 1K 7=CB@K (?0 ?C1;V:0FKOE B03> G0AC). $0@<V@020=L=5, AB0=0^;5=L=5, :0=:@MB=KO 0:FKV ?0;VBKG=09 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV C 1918 1990 3. @0A:@K20NFF0 ^ =02C:>2KE 0@BK:C;0E #. !=0?:>^A:030 . <dd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dd># 0?>H=O5 475AOFV3>4475 0:BK^=0 0AM=A>^205FF0 3VAB0@KG=0-:C;LBC@=0O, 0A25B=0O, =02C:>20O 4K V=H 0O A?04GK=0 15;0@CA:030 70<5660, O:0O ^ A025F:VO G0AK 1K;0 70:@KB>9 4;O HK@>:09 3@0<047:0ALFV, 1> =5 04?02O40;0 0DVFK9=09 V4M0;>3VV B0B0;VB0@=09 47O@602K. >;N 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV ^ 715@06M=L=V 04@046M=A:09, =0FKO=0;L=09 V4MV 0AM=A020;V . 0^:0 9 #. >=0= . "0:0O 04<5B=0O 7LO20 O: AB20@M=L=5 =0 M<V3@0FKV 15;0@CA:09 =0FKO=0;L=09 F0@:2K, O5 @>;O ^ @M;V3V9=K< V 3@0<047:0-:C;LBC@=K< 6KFLFV @0A:@K205FF0 ^ ?C1;V:0FKOE . /7K:>2VG . >?KB ?0 70E020=L=V 9 @072VFLFV =0FKO=0;L=09 :C;LBC@K, =01KB:V =0FKO=0;L=09 M<V3@0FKV ^ 40AL;54020=L=V 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV, 0 B0:A0<0 ^?;K^ 15;0@CA:VE 40AL;54=V:0^ 70 <O6>9 =0 A;02O=07=0^AB20 0^=>G=09 <M@K:V ^ 1950 90-O 33. ?0:070;0 . !O@35520 . <dd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dd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dd>M^=KO =01KB:V <0NFL 40AL;54=V:V 7L 5;0@CAV 9 4KOA?0@K ^ @0A:@KFLFV 4759=0ALFV 15;0@CA:09 AC?>;L=0ALFV ^ 0A>1=KE :@0V=0E. 1 3MBK< A254GKFL =04@C:020=0O ^ V=A:C :=V30 0<5@K:0=A:030 AC@>47VG0 . V?5;O  5;0@CAK C ( (1993), O:0O 0B@K<0;0 4>1@K 2>43C: C ?@MA5 . KFLFN 15;0@CA:09 3@0<04K ^ ( ?@KA25G0=K 9 0@BK:C;K . V?5;O, . &VE0<V@020, . O4=Q209 . . C:-@KH:52VG ?0:070;0 @>;N 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV ^ 0=0475 . . (0;OAB>2VGC =0;56KFL 3VAB>@K:0-?C1;VFKABKG=05 0AM=A020=L=5 ;QAC 15;0@CA0^ C @35=BK=5 . #O^;5=L=5 01  15;0@CA:09 ^AB@0;VV 405 ?C1;V:0FKO ^ 3075F5  03>=O (1993. !32 33). 01KB:V 9 ?@01;5<K 3@0<047:0-?0;VBKG=030, :C;LBC@=0-0A25B=030 6KFLFO 15;0@CA0^ C >;LHGK, VE 04=>AV=K 7 C;040<V 9 =0A5;L=VFB20< @0A:@K20NFF0 C ?@0F0E . !04>^A:030, /. V@0=>2VG0, ?C1;V:0FKOE . 0@HGM^A:030 . <dd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dd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dd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"0:, C AC<5A=K< 15;0@CA:0-@0A59A:V< 2CGM1=K< 40?0<>6=V:C 4;O 2K:;04GK:0^ V ABC4M=B0^  :BO1@L 1917 8 AC4L1K ?>;8B8G5A:>9 >??>78F88 , ('. 3. ><5;L, 1993) 15;0@CA:VO 0^B0@K . ;0B>=0^ V . !B0H:52VG 04KH;V 04 2K:;NG=0  :@KBK:0-2K:@K20;L=030 E0@0:B0@C @>;V 04K 5;0@CA:09 0@>4=09 @MA?C1;V:V (C B. ;. V =0 M<V3@0FKV) C ?@0FMA5 AB0=0^;5=L=O 15;0@CA:09 =0FKO=0;L=09 47O@60^=0ALFV. # 0A>1=K< ?0@03@0D5  5;0@CA:0O 4KOA?0@0 ?04@CG=V:0  VAB>@KO 5;0@CAV 7@>1;5=K :0@>B:V O5 03;O4. A>1=K @07475;  4KOA?0@0 (0^B0@ ". >9:0) <05 =02CG0;L=K 40?0<>6=V: ?04 @M40:FKO9 . @K3047V=0  5;0@CA07=0^AB20 (V=A:, 1998. !. 234 261). !?5FKO;L=CN 2CGM1=CN ?@03@0<C  5;0@CA:0O 4KOA?0@0 (0^B0@-A:;040;L=V: . !V@>F:V. 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C 5;0AB>:C =0 ?>;LA:09 <>25 2K9H0^ 71>@=V: 40:C<5=B0^  5;0@CA:V ABC4M=F:V @CE C >;LHGK (1981 1992). 0HB>^=09 :@K=VF09 4;O 2K2CGM=L=O ACG0A=030 AB0=C 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K, 0AM=A020=L=O O5 =01KB:0^ V ?@01;5<, A:;040=KE C705<04=>AV=0^ 7 10FL:0^HGK=09 7LO^;O5FF0 2K40=L=5 <0BM@KO;0^ V 40:C<5=B0^ ?5@H030 7'5740 15;0@CA0^ A25BC, 1> ^ VE 0:@MA;5=0 10G0=L=5 03C;L=0 =0FKO=0;L=K< AE>40< ;QAC 5;0@CAV, AD0@<C;O20=K ?@0?0=>2K ?0 704020;L=5=L=V :C;LBC@=KE , 6KFLFQ2KE ?0B@M1 15;0@CA0^ 70<5660, 2K7=0G0=K :0=:@MB=KO <5@K ?0 ^AB0;O20=L=N ?>^=0:@>^=030 ^705<0475O=L=O =0 47O@60^=K< V 3@0<047:V< C7@>^=V 15;0@CA0^ C A25F5 . VAB>@KO ?0;VBKG=09 M<V3@0FKV 1920-E 304>^ 3@C=B>^=0 @0A:@K205FF0 ^ 71>@=V:C  @EV2K 5;0@CA:09 0@>4=09 MA?C1;V:V (". 1. =. 1 2. V;L=O LN-@: 5=A: @030, 1998). <dd>O@B05FF0 =0 10FL:0^HGK=C =02C:>20O A?04GK=0 ?0 3VAB>@KV M<V3@0FKV H;OE0< O5 ?5@02K40=L=O, =0@MHF5 40 GKB0G0 40E>47OFL 70:@KBKO @0=59 <0BM@KO;K . /=K 40?0<030NFL 70<0F>^20FL C 3@0<047:09 A2O4><0ALFV =>205 10G0=L=5 ?04759, 7LO^, 0A>1 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K 09GK==K 9 70<56=K 15;0@CA:V 4@C:, C ?@K20B=0ALFV G0A>?VAK  !?04GK=0 ,  5;0@CA:V 3VAB0@KG=K 03;O4 ,  @K=VF0 ,  Q<0= ,  0=B0:BK V 4KO;>3V ,  >;0F0: (;V^;M=4, 1991 1996);  20609 ("0@>=B0); Bialoruskie zeszyty historyczne (5;0AB>:),  >;0A G0AC (Q=40=, 1989 1995),  5;0@CA:0O 4C<:0 (!0^B K25@), 307MBK  C=L (V;L=O),  @0<5=L ( K30), 1N;5BM=L  (;OE0< !:0@K=K (0A:20) 4K V=H. <dd>02C:>^FK 2K=>AOFL ?@01;5<K 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K, 15;0@CA:09 ?@KACB=0ALFV ^ A25F5 =0 206=KO 3@0<047:VO 03C;L=0=0FKO=0;L=KO <5@0?@K5<AB2K: CAB0=>^GK AE>4 ?0 AB20@M=L=N 3C@B020=L=O 15;0@CA0^ A25BC  0FL:0^HGK=0 (1990), ?5@HK AE>4 15;0@CA0^ 1;V7:030 70<5660 (5=A:, 1992), 5@HK 9 4@C3V 7'574K 15;0@CA0^ A25BC (1993, 1997), ?@K<0;V C475; ^ @0A?@0F>^FK 47O@60^=09 ?@03@0<K  5;0@CAK ^ A25F5 ( . 0@MF:V, /. 5F:0, . !C@<0G, . !O@35520, . 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V@0=>2VGK 4K H<0B V=HKE 09GK==KE V 70<56=KE AC@>47VG0^). <dd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dd> 070< 7 BK< 20@B0 047=0GKFL FO6:0ALFV 7L B>;L:V =02C:>2030 E0@0:B0@C, 0 ?0;VBKG=030 9 M:0=0<VG=030 ?@K 2K40=L=V ?04@KEB020=KE =ABKBCB0< 3VAB>@KV 0FKO=0;L=09 :04M<VV =02C: 5;0@CAV 9 0FKO=0;L=K< =02C:020-0A25B=K< FM=B@0< V<O $. !:0@K=K 9 740=KE C 2K4025FB2K ?@0F, C BK< ;V:C =0@KA0^ 3VAB>@KV 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV, 71>@=V:0^ 40:C<5=B0^ V <0BM@KO;0^ 4K V=H . @0<047:0-?0;VBKG=0O AVBC0FKO (A?@020:020=K ^;0409 04:0B 15;0@CAV70FKV 7L AO@M47V=K 1990-E 33., 70?0B@01020=0ALFL ?M^=K<V 47O@60^=K<V >@30=0<V ^ <=>3V< @0=59H09 :0=FM?FKV 3VAB>@KV 5;0@CAV, 0 B0:A0<0 V4M0;03VG=09 ?@0:BK:V) =5 A?@KO5 01'5:BK^=0<C, CA510:>20<C ?0:07C 15;0@CA:09 M<V3@0FKV, O5 A?04GK=K. 7O@60^=05 2K4025FB20  0AB0F:0O ;VB0@0BC@0 A?K=V;0 2K?CA: A5@KV  0;0AK 15;0@CA:030 70<5660 . #AQ G0ALF59 3CG0FL 012V=020G20=L=V ^ 0DVFK9=K< 47O@60^=K< 4@C:C 0A>1=KE ?0A;O205==KE ?0;VBKG=KE M<V3@0=B0^ C 205==KE 7;0GK=AB20E C 304K =O<5F:09 0:C?0FKV. V6 BK< ?M^=KO >@30=K 5;0@CAV ^ 04?025@=0ALFV 7L <V6=0@>4=09 ?@0:BK:09 V =>@<0<V (C 19693. 0=25=FKN 01 =5?@K<O=5=L=V BM@<V=C 40^=0ALFV 40 205==KE 7;0GK=AB20^ V 7;0GK=AB20^ AC?@0FL G0;025FB20 ?04?VA0;0 9 !! ) =020B =5 A?@01CNFL ?0F25@47VFL 4>:07=0 3MBKO ALF2O@46M=L=V. O4><K B>;L:V 047V=K B0:V 2K?040: C 04=>AV=0E 40 15;0@CA0 ^ =3;VV.  0?>H=VE D0:B0^ 25;L<V ?0:070;L=K< AB0^ 04:07 @M7V4KC<0 O@E>^=030 AC40 5;0@CAV ^ 2000 3. (O: V ^ 1990 3.) ?>^=0ALFN @M01V;VB020FL 7=0=CN 15;0@CA:CN ?0MB:C 0@KAC 5=VNH, 90-O C3>4:V O:>9 1C475 047=0G0FL 7L B>;L:V 15;0@CA:0O 3@0<047:0ALFL, 0;5 9 ACA25B=0O  ?0 ?;0=0E .!. <dd>5@A?5:BK2K 40;59H030 =5?@04C7OB030 9 CA510:>2030 2K2CGM=L=O 9 2K:;040=L=O 3VAB>@KV 9 ACG0A=0ALFV 15;0@CA:09 4KOA?0@K 72O70=K A0 7<5=09 ?0;VBKG=09 AVBC0FKV ^ 5;0@CAV, 0:BK^=0ALFN 15;0@CA:VE =02C:>^F0^ C 70<566K, 2KE040< 09GK==KE 40AL;54=V:0^ A0 A20V<V =0?@0F>^:0<V ?0 3MB09 ?@01;5<5 =0 <V6=0@>4=KO :0=D5@M=FKV, 0 B0:A0<0 ^ 70<56=K, C BK< ;V:C 15;0@CA:V 4@C:.  ^ A2OB;5 V=BM3@0FK9=KE 3C;L=O^ @0A59A:0-15;0@CA:0 :V@0^=VFB20, 73C1=KE 4;O A0<0AB>9=030 VA=020=L=O 5;0@CAV, =09206=59H0O 7040G0 =02C:>^F0^  4025ALFV 40 A2O4><0ALFV 09GK==09 V ACA25B=09 3@0<047:0ALFV, HB> 7=V:=5=L=5 =570;56=09 5;0@CAV 7 ?0;VBKG=09 :0@BK A25BC =5?07156=0 ?@K2O475 40 ?0A;01;5=L=O, 0 70BK< V 70=O?04C 15;0@CA:09 ?@KACB=0ALFV ^ A25F5, ?0A:0@M=L=N 0AV<V;OFKV 9 4M=0FKO=0;V70FKV 70<56=KE 15;0@CA0^. ">;L:V A0<0AB>9=0O 5;0@CAL, C;04K O:>9 1C4CFL :V@020FF0 =0FKO=0;L=K<V V=B0@MA0<V, AB2>@KFL ?>^=0FM==KO ^<>2K 4;O =0FKO=0;L=030 A0<02K7=0GM=L=O, A0<0^A2540<;5=L=O 15;0@CA0^ 70<5660, 70E020=L=O 15;0@CA:09 MB=VG=09 AC?>;L=0ALFN ^ A25F5 A20Q9 04<5B=0ALFV, A0<01KB=0ALFV, B@04KFK9, :C;LBC@K, 3VAB>@KV, C<0FC5 ?>2O7L 70<56=KE AC@>47VG0^ 7 0FL:0^HGK=09 475;O :0=A0;V40FKV 15;0@CA0^ O: =0FKO=0;L=030 9 :C;LBC@=030 FM;030. <center><form id=form1 name=form1> <input TYPE="button" VALUE="" onClick="window.location='Zap.25.html'" id=button1 name=button1> </form> </body> </html>