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V FV =5 047V=K ^ =0H09 B030G0A=09 3VAB0@KO3@0DVV 40AL;54020^ =O<5F:VO ;OBCGKO ;VAB:V (0@BK:C;   02V=K 3@>7=KO 1563 3>4C ). VAB>@K: AL<5;0 703;K1;O^AO ^ ?KB0=L=V MB=03@0DVV 4K 3VAB0@KG=05 3503@0DVV 5;0@CAV ( 0 A?@02K 15;0@CA:09 ?0^47Q==09 <O6K 4K V=H.) V, 2540<0 6, ?VA0^ =0 B0:CN 1;V7:CN 4;O O3> BM<C  ?@0 3VAB>@KN <M4KFK=K ^ =0HK< :@0V. 30420N 40;Q:0 =O ^AQ, 1> =0?VA0=05 V< C B0: 720=K<  4@>1=K< 60=@K (70F5<:V 7 =03>4K @>7=KE ?0475O^, 03;O4K 2K40=L=O^, 1VO3@0<:V?? 9 3. 4.) FO6:0 9 ?5@0;VGKFL. <dd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dd>#?5@HK=N, 1> @0=59 =5 0420620;VAO. # ?04A025F:09 5;0@CAV V<O 3VAB>@K:0 "C<0H0 AB0@0==0 70<>^G20;0AO. 020B C G0AK ?5@01C4>2K 09GK==KO A:0@K=07=0^FK @01V;V 2K3;O4, HB> ?@>AB0 =O 2540NFL :0;53C-M<V3@0=B0. <u>7V^=0, 0;5 D0:B: C <5=A:VE 2K40=L=OE :0=F0 1980-E, ?04@KEB020=KE ?02>4;5 ?@03@0<K AL2OB:020=L=O^ 500-E C3>4:0^ $@0=FVH:0 !:0@K=K, 7=0=030 A?MFKO;VAB0 7 <M@K:V, 0^B0@0 <=>3VE ?@0F0^, 157L O:VE C A:0@K=07=0^AB25 ^6> 1K;> =5 01KALFVAO, 0=V A;>20< =5 73040;V.</u> # M=FK:;O?M4KG=K< 40254=V:C  $@0=FKA: !:0@K=0 V O3> G0A "C<0H0 B0:A0<0 ?@0V3=0@020;V, E>FL 2K40=L=5 701OAL?5G0=0 7L<OAB>^=09 1V1;VO3@0DVG=09 G0AB:09. 5 ?@K25475=0 =V2>4=0O 7L O3>=KE ?@0F0^ V ^ 0@BK:C;5 ?@0 !:0@K=C, 7L<5HG0=K< =020B C A0<K< 4M<0:@0BKG=K< M=FK:;O?M4KG=K< 2K40=L=V  04=0B><=K< 40254=V:C  5;0@CAL (=., 1995). <dd># A025F:VO G0AK ?@0 VB0^B0 "C<0H0 ?VA0;V EV10 HB> B>;L:V ^ 0A:25. @K=0<AV O3> =504=0:@>FL 730420^ @0A59A:V A:0@K=07=0^F0 /^35= 5<V@>^A:V, ?040NGK, 04=0:, C 2K@07=0 =M30BK^=K< AL2OB;5, 1> 047=0G0^ =09?5@H  =0FKO=0;VABKG=KO 4K  0=BKA025F:VO ?07KFKV 0^B0@0. "04K =020B C =02CFK V=H0O 4C<:0 <03;0 :20;VDV:020FF0 ?@>AB0 O: H:>4=0O V4M0;O3VG=0O 4K2M@AVO, O:  ?0:;Q? . 04>1=K< GK=0< A20Q AB0^;5=L=5 40 =5A025F:09 3VAB0@KO3@0DVV, 40 0?0=M=B0^ 7L V=H030 ;O35@C 2K7=0GK^ V 3VAB>@K: /. 5<V@>^A:V, O:V OHGM ^ 1978 3. ?VA0^ C A20Q9 1V1;VO3@0DVV ?0 !:0@K=5: <p><dd><tt>K ;VGK;V ?0B@M1=K< 04<>2VFF0 04 0?VA0=L=O ?0:;Q?=VF:VE C A20Q9 1>;LH0ALFV 0@BK:C;0^ V 70F5<0: C M<V3@0=F:V< 4@C:C.</tt> <p><dd>0^;O^, O=K, =0FKO=0;VABK, V  V<O !:0@K=K A:0@KAB>^20;V 4;O V4M0;V70FKV <V=C;030 . "0O A0<0O A;02CB0O  V4M0;V70FKO <V=C;030 , HB> V=:@K<V=020;0AO 15;0@CA:V< 3VAB>@K:0< ?04G0A @073@><C =0FKO=0;L=030 @CEC ^ 1930-O& <dd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dd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dd>>AL 60 A?0B@M1V;0AO @>^=0 30 304>^, :01 C6> ^ 4M<0:@0BKG=09 5;0@CAV ?5@H0O ?@0F0 :@0<>;L=030 A:0@K=07=0^FK 1K;0 ?5@02K40475=0O 0A>1=09 :=V60G:09 0<0;L 475AOFVBKAOG=K< =0:;040< (2K9H;0 ^ AM@KV  3C:V <V=C^HGK=K ), 0 ?@07 3>4 C G0A>?VA5  @K=VF0 7LO2V^AO 9 "C<0H0^ 0@BK:C;  0;5=L=5 :=V30^ !:0@K=K ^ 0A:25 . 4020;0AO 1, A?@020 7@>1;5=0O, =>20O AB0@>=:0 1VO3@0DVV ?5@H04@C:0@0 ^?VA0=0O. <dd>04>1=0, 04=0:, HB> ^ 5=A:C <0A:>^A:V M?V7>4 !:0@K=02030 6KFLFO 40AN;L =5 700:FM?B020=K =020B 10;LHK=QN 40AL;54=V:0^, =O :06CGK ^6> ?@0 HK@>:CN GKB0F:CN 0^4KB>@KN. # =0H09 =02C:>209 ;VB0@0BC@K ?@0?0=020=CN "C<0H0< 2M@AVN 9 =5 0A?@MG20;V, V =5 ?@K7=0;V 70 03C;L=0?@K=OBCN. 4=> ^ =09=>^HK<, 73040=K< C6> 40254=V:C  5;0@CAL C@MHF5 ALFV?;0 707=0G0=0, HB> !:0@K=0 2KO6460^  <03GK<0 V ^ 0A:2C . ;5 3MB05  <03GK<0 ^ @>^=09 ABC?5=V 40?CA:05 9 0420@>B=05. <dd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p><tt>0 4@C3>5 V<O $@0=FKA: (& ) =01K^ ?04 G0A CABC?;5=L=O ^ M70BM@KG=CN :0@?0@0FKN .</tt> <p><dd>MB:CN =0AB>9;V20ALFL 73040=KE 0^B0@0^ =5<03GK<0 2KB;C<0GKFL @0FKO=0;L=0. <u>A=>^=KO 0@3C<M=BK <=>3VE 2CG>=KE, C BK< ;V:C @073>@=CB0O "C<0H0<, 0 2K:070=0O OHGM 40 209=K 740304:0 5=@KE0 0^<O=LA:030 ?@0 B>5, HB> A;>20 Georgii, @0AGKB0=05 ^ 40:C<M=F5 1532 3.  047V=K<, 40@MGK, 475 B0:>5 V<O 2KO^;5=0, 3MB0 ^AO3> B>;L:V A;>20 egregius, ?0<K;:>20 =0?VA0=05 ?5@0?VHGK:0<, 04M?BK 5>@3VO 0=V =5 012O@30;V.</u>  ?C1;V:0FKO 4>:B0@0 3VAB0@KG=KE =02C: A:0@K=07=0^FK 5>@3VO 0;5=G0=:V, O:0O 7LO2V;0AO OHGM ^ 1996 3., 70AB0;0AO, 7405FF0, 7CAV< =52O4><09 #. 3V52VGC. V6 BK<, 3MBK 0@BK:C; ?04 :@0A0<>^=09 =07209  0=5F 70AB0@M;030 <VD0: =>2K 40:C<5=B ?@0 !:0@K=C A0?@0^4K ?0AB02V^ B;CABCN :@>?:C ^ 40^=O9 A?@MGFK, 1> . 0;5=G0=:0 7=09H>^ C >7=0=V 0@K3V=0; 40:C<M=B0 1532 3., 7L O:>30 74K<0;0AO B0O A;02CB0O :>?VO, HB> V 40;0 ?04AB02C 3020@KFL ?@0 <i>5>@3VO</i>. K: 2>AL, C 0@K3V=0;5 A0?@0^4K =0?VA0=0: <i>egregii Francisci Scorina de Poloczko</i>. MB0 7=0GKFL, 740304:0 5=@KE0 0^<O=LA:030 9 0@3C<M=B0FKO VB0^B0 "C<0H0 :0=G0B:>20 ?0FL25@47V;VAO. MB0: A025F:0O  350@3V70FKO !:0@K=K AB@0FV;0 0?>H=V DV302K ;VALFV:. <dd>@K:<5B=K AL;54 ?0:V=C^ . "C<0H V ^ 4KA:CAVV 20:>; V<O =0H030 :@0N. # =52O;VG:V< 4>?VA5  0 A?@02K ?0E>460=L=O =07>2C  5;0O CAL  (1966) Q= =5 ?03047V^AO 7 4C<:0N 0^;0 #@10=0, HB> 1KFF0< =07>^  5;0O CAL  AL?O@H0 9 40^6M9HK G0A ?@K<O=O^AO 2K;CG=0 40 0A:>^HGK=K 9 ?@K;53;KE 40 O5 75<;O^ . 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"C<0H0, 01> ^;VG20NGK, HB> 40AL;54020=0O FO?5@ =0<V :@>=V:0 0=AB0=F:030 A01>@C #;L@KE0 KEM=B0;O, =0?VA0=0O ?0<V6 1420 V 1430 33., 30@040<V  5;09 CAV =07K205 0:C@0B :@K2VF:VO FM=B@K  !<0;5=A:, >;0F0: V VF51A:. #AQ 3MB0 0A01;V20 0:BC0;L=0 ^ 7L2O7:C 7 BK<, HB> ^ 0?>H=VO G0AK ^ ?0?C;O@=09 ;VB0@0BC@K 0A01;V20 ?0HK@0;0AO 73040=0O 2KHM9 V4MO  =53VAB0@KG=0ALFV =072K <i>5;0O CAL</i> 4;O =0H030 :@0N, 7L25475=0O 40 ?@K<VBK^=09 D>@<C;K  K  VB20, 0 V<O 5;0@CAL =0< =0:V=C;V <0A:>^A:VO F0@K . <dd>0974@>A=CN V=BCVFKN 2KO2V^ "C<0H B0:A0<0 ^ B;C<0GM=L=V ?0E>460=L=O =072K <i>5;0O CAL</i>.  <=>AB20 2M@AVO^ O: =091>;LH ?@0^47V2CN Q= ?@K=O^ BCN, HB> 7L2O720;0 7LO^;5=L=5 3MB030 V<O 7 <0=3>;LA:0N =020;0N % AB.:   5;0O 07=0G0;0 2>;L=CN 04 B0B0@A:030 O@<0 ,  70^206K^ Q=. MB0O V4MO 2K:0720;0AO OHGM ^ %% AB. V ?0^B0@0;0AO 70BK< H<0B :V< 7 =02C:>^F0^ O: 04=0 7 HM@03C <03GK<KE. &O?5@ 60 40475=KO =02C:>2KE 4>AL;540^ AL254G0FL, HB> 0:C@0B O=0 <>60 0B@K<0FL =091>;LH 0@3C<M=B0^  70 . 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"> Q= 2>AB@0 ?0;5<V7C5 7L <5=A:V< :0;530< . >@HC=02K<, B> A?@0G05FF0 7 0<M@K:0=A:V< 2CG>=K< . 0:0@0<, 0 2>AL 047=0G05 740@>2KO ?07KFKV ?>;LA:VE M<V3@0FK9=KE 3VAB>@K:0^ =0 G0;5 7L O;L3>@A:V<  0^B0@0^ 71>@=V:0  Alma Mater Vilnensis . &O?5@ @07C<5N, 04:C;L C "C<0H0 B0:0O M@C4KFKO. 0^@04 FV EB> V=HK <>3 ?@K:<5FVFL, =0?@K:;04, HB> 30;>^=0O V4MO 2O4><05 ?@0FK 5=@KE0 0H:52VG0  The Origin of Russia (?@0 @M;V3V9=05 7=0GM=L=5 A;>20 <i> CAL, @CA:V</i> O: 206=030 D0:B0@C ^ ?0HK@M=L=V 3MB05 =072K 7 V520 =0 V=HKO 75<;V) 70?07KG0=0O 7 ?C1;V:0FKO^ 0F;020 0AB>^A:030  C 3MBK< ?@K7=020^AO 9 A0< 0H:52VG (3;. 0@BK:C; . "C<0H0  VAB0@KG=0O :0=FM?FKO 0F;020 0AB>^A:030 475??). <dd>0 @0720;C !025F:030 !0N7C ^ 5;0@CAV ?C1;VG=0 =07K20FL V<O VB0^B0 "C<0H0 1K;> 7010@>=5=0. ;5 3MB0 =O 7=0GKFL, 1KFF0< O3> BCB 7CAV< =5 GKB0;V. 0NAO, <05 @0FKN 73040=K 2KHM9 #. 3V52VG, O:V :060, HB>  ?;Q=0< O3> (. 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(04:C;L??)</tt> <p><dd>>AL 475 A0?@0^4=0O A:@CE0, 1>;L B03>, EB> :;0475 A205 AV;K 40@MHBK =0 0E2O@=V: AL2OB;0, 0;5 V ?;Q=C =O 10GKFL, V @07C<5=L=O =5 7=0E>47VFL... <dd>&O?5@ 10G=0, HB> 4>:B0@ VB0^B "C<0H ?@K:;0^AO 40 15;0@CA:05 3VAB0@KG=05 =02C:V <u>^ M<V3@0FKV</u> 1>;59, GK<AO EB> V=HK. = C209H>^ C A:;04 C =0 A0<K< ?0G0B:C 1952 3., :0;V =ABKBCB B>;L:V AB20@0^AO, 4K 7L ?5@H030 6 =C<0@C 1@0^ A0<K 0:BK^=K ^475; C ?C1;V:0FKOE  0?VA0^ . ?>H=V @07 ?C1;V:0FKO 2CG>=030 1K;0 7L<5HG0=0 ^ 19-< =C<0@K.  :0;V AB0^ 30;>^=K< @M40:B0@0< 04=>^;5=KE C LN @:C  0?VA0^ , B> 0G0;O^ 2K40=L=5 7 1974 40 1978 3. 0 <>9 ?>3;O4, <5=02VB0 @M403020=KO V< =C<0@K (7 12 40 16) <>6=0 ;VGKFL 10409 A0<K<V 7L<OAB>^=K<V 9 FV:02K<V. ;5 =091>;LH ?5@0:0=0^G0 ?@0 ^=QA0: 3MB09 0A>1K AL254G0FL ;VG1K. 3>4=0 7 <0V<V ?04;V:0<V, :0;V 03C;0< C 19 2K?CA:0E  0?VA0^ (7L 1-30 40 19-30  ?0:C;L "C<0H ?VA0^) 1K;V 7L<5HG0=KO 253 ?C1;V:0FKV, 4K: 107 7L VE =0;560FL 04=0<C 0^B0@C  VB0^BC "C<0HC. >;LH 70 42 04A>B:V! 0?@>ABC =5?0@0^=0;L=K 7L =VGK< ?>47L2V3!  7@>1;5=0 3MB0, ?02>4;5 HGK@030 ?@K7=0=L=O 2CG>=030,  ?@KE0?:0<V ^ 2>;L=KO 04 70=OB:0^  =0 E;51 HB>47Q==K G0AV=K ... 04:C;L?? <p><center><b>*</b></center> <p><dd><tt>0@04>:A V7 !:0@K=0< B>9, HB> 9 70 A2093> 6KFLFO, V FO?5@ Q= 1>;LHCN ^203C 9 ?0H0=C <5^ V <05 AO@>4 GC6KE, O: AO@>4 A20VE,</tt> <p> =0?VA0^ =5O: "C<0H C ;VALF5 40 VFL1VG0. 5@0D@07020^HK O3>, E>G0FF0 A:070FL: 3V@>=VO 15;0@CA:VE ;QA0^ C BK<, HB> 9 A;02CBK 40AL;54=V: !:0@K=K H0=C5FF0 EV10 1>;59 AO@>4 GC6KE, 1> A205 ?@0 O3> =020B <0;0 HB> GC;V... <p align="justify"><b># ?C1;V:0FKV A:0@KAB0=05 ;VAB020=L=5 . 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